My free time is the weekend. I really like to sleep before lunch. Then I get up, prepare my breakfast and sit in my uncomfortable chair and go on the Internet. I like reading news, blogs, stories in English. I really like reading everything in English. If the weather is fine I like to spend my time outside with my friends. In the summer I like riding my bicycle with my friend. His name is Juzepe. He doesn’t like riding for a long time. When we stop for a break, he loves drinking beer. I don’t love drinking beer and I drink water. In the winter I like winter sports in the mountain. I love going skiing but I’m not good skier. Also, when the weather is bad, I like to stay at home and I love watching films very much. I really like watching comedies, thrillers and adventures. My favourite adventure serial is Game of thrones. I love it! Sometimes I play video games on my console. I prefer games with cars or with an incredible story. But the most fun part is when I play PES with my friends. In my free time, I love reading books in English. Not everyone loves reading, especially in English.
1. like/love + noun
- I like pizza.
- She likes beer.
- We like the sea.
- I don’t like her.
- He doesn’t like his teacher.
- I love books.
- Mimi loves music.
- Susan and I love theatre.
- I don’t love dark beer.
- Anna doesn’t love big shopping centres.
2. like/love + -ing
- I like playing computer games.
- She likes doing yoga.
- We like watching TV.
- I don’t like playing football.
- Tom doesn’t like swimming.
- I love drinking water.
- She loves walking in the park.
- I don’t love going to school.
- Anna doesn’t love drinking alcohol.
- work –> works
- live –> lives
Some verbs have present simple spelling changes for third person (he/she/it):
Verbs that end in -s, -sc, -ch, -x:
- kiss –> kisses
- push –> pushes
- watch –> watches
- relax –> relaxes
Verbs that end in -y:
- study –> studies
- try –> tries
- marry –> marries
- cry –> cries
-y doesn’t change to -ies if the ending is -ay, -ey, -oy, -uy:
- play –> plays
- say –> says
- buy –> buys
- enjoy –> enjoys
- stay –> stays
The present tense is the base form of the verb:
- I live in Sofia.
- You are the best!
- We like ice cream.
- They go to the cinema.
But the third person (he/she/it) adds an -s:
- He listens to rap music.
- She plays the piano.
We use the present tense to talk about:
1. Something that is true in the present:
- I‘m 30 years old.
- You work in the office.
- We go lunch.
- They sleep in different places.
- Gorge hurries for work.
- Anna goes to the trade centre.
2. Something that happens again and again in the present:
- I go to the cinema every month.
- She goes to the gym every day.
We use words like sometimes, often, always and never (adverbs of frequency) with the present tense:
- I sometimes write at my blog.
- Anna often eats a vegetarian sandwich.
- I and Anna always go to bed early.
- George never shaves his beard.
3. Something that is always true:
- The adult human body contains 206 bones.
- Spanish national anthem has no words.
- Light travels at almost 300,000 kilometres per second.
4. Something that is fixed in the future:
- I go to the theatre next week.
- Anna comes to Bulgaria next year.
- The bus leaves at 19.00 tomorrow evening.
Questions and negatives
With the present tense, we use do and does to make questions. We use does for the third person (he/she/it) and we use do for the others. We use do and does with question words like where, what and why.
- Where do you live? (I live in Sofia.)
- Does George watch movies? (Yes, he does.)
- Where do they work? (They work in the business centre.)
- What does she do in her free time? (She reads books, watches movies and goes to the gym.)
- What do you do in your free time? (I relax, read, play on the video game.)
- What kind of music do they like? (They like pop music and jazz.)
- Do you watch movies? (Yes, I do.)
But look at these questions with who:
- Who lives in Sofia?
- Who plays football at the weekend?
- Who works at Liverpool City Hospital?
With the present tense, we use do and does to make negatives. We use does not (doesn’t) for the third person (he/she/it) and we use do not (don’t) for others.
- I like tennis, but I don’t like football.
- I don’t have a car, but I have a bicycle.
- They don’t live in a flat. They live in a house.
- We don’t go to work by bus.
- George doesn’t like his job.
- Anna doesn’t do exercise.
1. [uncountable] knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove, for example by experiments
- the laws of science
- new developments in science and technology
- the advance of modern science
2. [uncountable] the study of science
- science students/teachers/courses
3. [uncountable, countable] a particular branch of science
- to study one of the sciences
a person who studies one or more of the natural sciences (= for example, physics, chemistry and biology)
- a research scientist
- nuclear scientist
- scientists and engineers
- the cartoon figure of the mad scientist working in his laboratory
present simple: I / you / we / they explore he / she / it explores past simple: explored past participle: explored -ing form: exploring
1. [transitive, intransitive] to travel to or around an area or a country in order to learn about it
- explore something (for something) The city is best explored on foot.
- They explored the land to the south of the Murray River.
- explore (for something) As soon as we arrived on the island we were eager to explore.
- companies exploring (= searching for) oil
2. [transtitive] explore something to examine something completely or carefully in order to find out more about it
- These ideas will be explored in more detail in chapter 7.
3. [transitive] explore something to feel something with your hands or another part of your body
- She explored the sand with her toes.
a person who travels to unknown places in order to find out more about them
- Early explorers traded directly with North Americans for furs.
- the great British explorers of the sixteenth century
known about many people
- a famous artist/hotel
- the most famous lake in Italy
- One day, I’ll be rich and famous.
- So this is the famous dress! (= the one we heard a lot about but have not seen)
- famous for something He became internationally famous for his novels.
- famous as something She was more famous as a writer than as a singer.
words that are printed underneath a picture, cartoon, etc. that explain or describe it
1. the government department that collects taxes on goods bought and sold and goods brought into the country, and that checks what is brought in
- The Customs have seized large quantities of smuggled heroin.
- French Customs have arrested two men.
- a customs officer
2. the place at a port or an airport where your bags are checked as you come into a country
- to go through customs and passport control
3. the taxes that must be paid to the government when goods are brought in from other countries
- to pay customs on something
- customs duty/duties
1. [countable, uncountable] custom (of doing something) an accepted way of behaving or of doing things in a society or a community
- an old/ancient custom
- the custom of giving presents at Christmas
- It’s a local custom.
- It is the custom in that country for women to marry young.
2. [singular] (formal or literary) the way a person always behaves
—> SYNONYM habit, practice
- It was her custom to rise early.
- As was his custom, he knocked three times.
3. [uncountable] (British English, formal) (also business North American English, British English) the fact of a person or people buying goods or services at a shop/store or business
- Thank you for your custom. Please call again.
- We’ve lost a lot of custom since prices went up.
like somebody/something but not exactly the same
- We have very similar interests.
- similar (to somebody/something) My teaching style is similar to that of most other teachers.
- similar (in something) The two houses is similar in size.
- The brothers look very similar.
- All our patients have broadly similar problems.
- The disease attacks the immune system in a similar way to AIDS.
- Stir the paint with a piece of wood or something similar.
the mother of your husband or wife
- The comedian told an endless stream of mother-in-law jokes.
life expectancy noun
the number of years that a person is likely ti live; the length of time that something is likely to exist or continue for
- Life expectancy for both men and women has improved greatly in the past 20 years.
- Women have a longer life expectancy than men.
- The life expectancy of a large bus is about 15 years.
the science or practice of farming
- The number of people employed in agriculture has fallen in the last decade.
- 50% of the country’s population depends on agriculture.
the business or industry of producing goods in large quantities in factories, etc.
- Many jobs in manufacturing were lost during the recession.
- The company has established its first manufacturing base in Europe.
1. [countable + singular or plural verb] the number, amount, rate of something, expressed as if it is part of a total which is 100; a part or share of a whole
- What percentage of the population is/are overweight?
- A high percentage of the female staff are part-time workers.
- Interest rates are expected to rise by one percentage point (= a unit of a one per cent).
- Tax rates fell by 3.4 percentage points.
- The figure is expressed as a percentage.
- The results were analysed in percentage terms.
2. [countable, usually singular] a share of the profits of something
- He gets a percentage for every car sold.
1. [singular + singular or plural verb] the smaller part of a group; less than half of the people or things in a large group
- Only a small minority of students is/are interested in politics these days.
- For a minority, the decision was a disappointment.
- minority shareholders in the bank
—> OPPOSITE majority
2. [countable] a small group within a community or a country that is different because of race, religion, language, etc.
- the rights of ethnic/racial minorities
- minority languages
- a large German-speaking minority in the east of the country
3. [uncountable] (law) the state of being under the age at which you are legally an adult
- When his minority ended he had to fight to reclaim his property.
1. a sum of money
- The insurance company will refund any amount due to you.
- You will receive a bill for the full amount.
- Small amounts will be paid in cash.
2. amount (of something) (used especially with uncountable nouns) a quantity of something
- an amount of time/money/information
- We’ve had an enormous amount of help from people.
- The server is designed to store huge amount of data.
a person who takes an active part in the protection of the environment
- a meeting of local conservationists
marital status noun
(used especially on official forms) the fact of whether you are single, married, etc.
- questions about age, sex and marital status