Present Simple

The present tense is the base form of the verb:

  • I live in Sofia.
  • You are the best!
  • We like ice cream.
  • They go to the cinema.

But the third person (he/she/it) adds an -s:

  • He listens to  rap music.
  • She plays the piano.

Use

We use the present tense to talk about:

1. Something that is true in the present:

  • I‘m 30 years old.
  • You work in the office.
  • We go lunch.
  • They sleep in different places.
  • Gorge hurries for work.
  • Anna goes to the trade centre.

2. Something that happens again and again in the present:

  • I go to the cinema every month.
  • She goes to the gym every day.

We use words like sometimes, often, always and never (adverbs of frequency) with the present tense:

  • I sometimes write at my blog.
  • Anna often eats a vegetarian sandwich.
  • I and Anna always go to bed early.
  • George never shaves his beard.

3. Something that is always true:

  • The adult human body contains 206 bones.
  • Spanish national anthem has no words.
  • Light travels at almost 300,000 kilometres per second.

4. Something that is fixed in the future:

  • I go to the theatre next week.
  • Anna comes to Bulgaria next year.
  • The bus leaves at 19.00 tomorrow evening.

Questions and negatives

With the present tense, we use do and does to make questions. We use does for the third person (he/she/it) and we use do for the others. We use do and does with question words like where, what and why.

  • Where do you live? (I live in Sofia.)
  • Does George watch movies? (Yes, he does.)
  • Where do they work? (They work in the business centre.)
  • What does she do in her free time? (She reads books, watches movies and goes to the gym.)
  • What do you do in your free time? (I relax, read, play on the video game.)
  • What kind of music do they like? (They like pop music and jazz.)
  • Do you watch movies? (Yes, I do.)

But look at these questions with who:

  • Who lives in Sofia?
  • Who plays football at the weekend?
  • Who works at Liverpool City Hospital?

With the present tense, we use do and does to make negatives. We use does not (doesn’t)  for the third person (he/she/it) and we use do not (don’t) for others.

  • I like tennis, but I don’t like football.
  • I don’t have a car, but I have a bicycle.
  • They don’t live in a flat. They live in a house.
  • We don’t go to work by bus.
  • George doesn’t like his job.
  • Anna doesn’t do exercise.

Unit 1 People VOCABULARY

Vocabulary:

 


science noun

1. [uncountable] knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove, for example by experiments

  • the laws of science
  • new developments in science and technology
  • the advance of modern science

2. [uncountable] the study of science

  • science students/teachers/courses

3. [uncountable, countable] a particular branch of science

  • to study one of the sciences

 

scientist noun

a person who studies one or more of the natural sciences (= for example, physics, chemistry and biology)

  • a research scientist
  • nuclear scientist
  • scientists and engineers
  • the cartoon figure of the mad scientist working in his laboratory

 

explore verb

present simple:
I / you / we / they explore
he / she / it explores

past simple:
explored

past participle:
explored 

-ing form:
exploring

1. [transitive, intransitive] to travel to or around an area or a country in order to learn about it

  • explore something (for something) The city is best explored on foot.
  • They explored the land to the south of the Murray River.
  • explore (for something) As soon as we arrived on the island we were eager to explore.
  • companies exploring (= searching for) oil

2. [transtitive] explore something to examine something completely or carefully in order to find out more about it

  • These ideas will be explored in more detail in chapter 7.

3. [transitive] explore something to feel something with your hands or another part of your body

  • She explored the sand with her toes.

 

explorer noun

a person who travels to unknown places in order to find out more about them

  • Early explorers traded directly with North Americans for furs.
  • the great British explorers of the sixteenth century

 

famous adjective

known about many people

  • a famous artist/hotel
  • the most famous lake in Italy
  • One day, I’ll be rich and famous.
  • So this is the famous dress! (= the one we heard a lot about but have not seen)
  • famous for something He became internationally famous for his novels.
  • famous as something She was more famous as a writer than as a singer.

 

caption noun

words that are printed underneath a picture, cartoon, etc. that explain or describe it


 

Customs noun

1. the government department that collects taxes on goods bought and sold and goods brought into the country, and that checks what is brought in

  • The Customs have seized large quantities of smuggled heroin.
  • French Customs have arrested two men.
  • a customs officer

2. the place at a port or an airport where your bags are checked as you come into a country

  • to go through customs and passport control

3. the taxes that must be paid to the government when goods are brought in from other countries

  • to pay customs on something
  • customs duty/duties

 

custom noun

1. [countable, uncountable] custom (of doing something) an accepted way of behaving or of doing things in a society or a community

  • an old/ancient custom
  • the custom of giving presents at Christmas
  • It’s a local custom.
  • It is the custom  in that country for women to marry young.

2. [singular] (formal or literary) the way a person always behaves

—> SYNONYM habit, practice

  • It was her custom to rise early.
  • As was his custom, he knocked three times.

3. [uncountable] (British English, formal) (also business  North American English, British English) the fact of a person or people buying goods or services at a shop/store or business

  • Thank you for your custom. Please call again.
  • We’ve lost a lot of custom since prices went up.

 

similar adjective

like somebody/something but not exactly the same

  • We have very similar interests.
  • similar (to somebody/something)  My teaching style is similar to that of most other teachers.
  • similar (in something) The two houses is similar in size.
  • The brothers look very similar.
  • All our patients have broadly similar problems.
  • The disease attacks the immune system in a similar way to AIDS.
  • Stir the paint with a piece of wood or something similar.

 

mother-in-law noun

the mother of your husband or wife

  • The comedian told an endless stream of mother-in-law jokes.

 

life expectancy noun

the number of years that a person is likely ti live; the length of time that something is likely to exist or continue for

  • Life expectancy for both men and women has improved greatly in the past 20 years.
  • Women have a longer life expectancy than men.
  • The life expectancy of a large bus is about 15 years.

 

agriculture noun

the science or practice of farming

  • The number of people employed in agriculture has fallen in the last decade.
  • 50% of the country’s population depends on agriculture.

 

manufacturing noun

the business or industry of producing goods in large quantities in factories, etc.

  • Many jobs in manufacturing were lost during the recession.
  • The company has established its first manufacturing base in Europe.

 

percentage noun

1. [countable + singular or plural verb] the number, amount, rate of something, expressed as if it is part of a total which is 100; a part or share of a whole

  • What percentage of the population is/are overweight?
  • A high percentage of the female staff are part-time workers.
  • Interest rates are expected to rise by one percentage point (= a unit of a one per cent).
  • Tax rates fell by 3.4 percentage points.
  • The figure is expressed as a percentage.
  • The results were analysed in percentage terms.

2. [countable, usually singular] a share of the profits of something

  • He gets a percentage for every car sold.

 

minority noun

1. [singular + singular or plural verb] the smaller part of a group; less than half of the people or things in a large group

  • Only a small minority of students is/are interested in politics these days.
  • For a minority, the decision was a disappointment.
  • minority shareholders in the bank

—> OPPOSITE majority

2. [countable] a small group within a community or a country that is different because of race, religion, language, etc.

  • the rights of ethnic/racial minorities
  • minority languages
  • a large German-speaking minority in the east of the country

3. [uncountable] (law) the state of being under the age at which you are legally an adult

  • When his minority ended he had to fight to reclaim his property.

 

amount noun

1. a sum of money

  • The insurance company will refund any amount due to you.
  • You will receive a bill for the full amount.
  • Small amounts will be paid in cash.

2. amount (of something) (used especially with uncountable nouns) a quantity of something

  • an amount of time/money/information
  • We’ve had an enormous amount of help from people.
  • The server is designed to store huge amount of data.

 

conservationist noun

a person who takes an active part in the protection of the environment

  • a meeting of local conservationists

 

marital status noun

(used especially on official forms) the fact of whether you are single, married, etc.

  • questions about age, sex and marital status